Chinese Birds
Chinese Birds 2012, 3(4) 274-294 DOI:   10.5122/cbirds.2012.0042  ISSN: 1674-7674 CN: 11-5870/Q

Current Issue | Archive | Search                                                            [Print]   [Close]

Information and Service
This Article
Supporting info
Service and feedback
Email this article to a colleague
Add to Bookshelf
Add to Citation Manager
Cite This Article
Email Alert
Cuculus canorus
early experiments
host egg ejection
Molothrus ater
obligate brood parasites
true-egg recognition

Egg discrimination by hosts and obligate brood parasites: a historical perspective and new synthesis

Spencer G. SEALY 1,*, Todd J. UNDERWOOD 2

1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada 2 Department of Biology, Kutztown University, Kutztown, Pennsylvania 19530, USA


With the knowledge that cuckoos and cowbirds lay their eggs parasitically, and that some hosts eject parasitic eggs, ornithologists began to ponder the question of how host females discriminate between a foreign egg and their own eggs, wondering how hosts “know” which egg to remove. Results of one of the first uncontrolled experiments were inappropriately interpreted to imply ejection was based on discordancy, with hosts simply ejecting the egg in the minority, or the “odd-looking” egg. Controlled experiments eventually revealed that hosts first learn the appearance of own their eggs and discriminate between them and any odd egg in their nest, regardless of which egg type is in the minority. Recent work has shown that discordancy may play a role in discrimination by males mated successively with females that lay polymorphic eggs. We examine the details of the early experiments, in light of recent advances in studies of egg recognition. An ability to recognize eggs also has been extended, implicitly, to include obligate brood parasites, as it underlies several hypotheses in explanation of the behavior of parasites toward their hosts. Egg recognition in parasites, however, has not been experimentally confirmed, nor has a mechanism been identified by which parasites could discriminate between their own eggs and the other eggs in a nest. We review hypotheses (parasite competition, egg removal and multiple parasitism, mafia, farming) that require the ability of obligate brood parasites to discriminate eggs at different levels and the potential mechanisms used by parasites to recognize their own eggs and suggest experiments to test for egg discrimination. An assessment of the egg recognition ability of parasites is germane to our understanding of how parasites counteract defenses of hosts.

Keywords Cuculus canorus   discordancy   early experiments   host egg ejection   learning   Molothrus ater   obligate brood parasites   template   true-egg recognition  
Received 2012-11-30 Revised 2012-12-19 Online:  
DOI: 10.5122/cbirds.2012.0042
Corresponding Authors: Spencer G. Sealy
About author:

Ali S. 1931. The origin of mimicry in cuckoo eggs. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc, 34:1067–1070.
Arcese P, Smith JNM, Hatch MI. 1996. Nest predation by cowbirds and its consequences for passerine demography. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 93:4608–4611.
Avilés JM, Soler JJ, Prez-Contreras T. 2006. Dark nests and egg colour in birds: a possible functional role of ultraviolet reflectance in egg detectability. Proc R Soc Lond B, 273:2821–2829.
Avilés JM, Stokke BG, Moksnes A, Røskaft E, Åsmul M, Møller AP. 2006. Rapid increase in cuckoo egg matching in a recently parasitized Reed Warbler population. J Evol Biol, 19:1901–1910.
Avilés JM, Stokke BG, Moksnes A, Røskaft E, Møller AP. 2007. Envormental conditions influence egg color of Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus and their parasite, the Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 61:475–485.
Baldamus E. 1892. Das Leben der euorpäischen Kuckucke. Parey, Berlin.
Becking JH. 1981. Notes on the breeding of Indian cuckoos. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc, 78:201–231.
Blyth E. 1835. Observations on the cuckoo. Mag Nat Hist, 8:325–340.
Bogale BA, Kamata N, Mioko K, Sugita S. 2011. Quantity discrimination in Jungle Crows, Corvus macrorhynchos. Anim Behav, 82:635–641.
Brewer TM. 1840. Wilson’s American Ornithology. Otis, Broaders, Boston.
Brooker MG, Brooker LC. 1989. The comparative breeding behaviour of two sympatric cuckoos, Horsefield’s Bronze-cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis and the Shining Bronze-cuckoo C. lucidus, in Western Australia: a new model for the evolution of egg morphology and host specificity in avian brood parasites. Ibis, 131:528–547.
Brooker LC, Brooker MG. 1990. Why are cuckoos host specific? Oikos, 57:301–309.
?apek V. 1896. Beiträge zur Fortpflanzungsgeschichte des Kuckucks. Ornithol Jahrbuch, 7: 41–72, 102–118, 146–157, 165–183.
Carpenter GDH. 1941–42. Observations and experiments in Africa by the late C. F. M. Swynnerton on wild birds eating butterflies and the preferences shown. Proc Linn Soc Lond, 154:10–34.
Chance E[P]. 1922. The Cuckoo’s Secret. Sidgwick and Jackson, London.
Chance EP. 1940. The Truth about the Cuckoo. Country Life, London.
Cherry MI, Bennett ATD. 2001. Egg colour matching in an African cuckoo, as revealed by ultraviolet-visible reflectance spectrophotometry. Proc R Soc Lond B, 268:565–571.
Clark L, Mason JR. 1989. Sensitivity of Brown-headed Cowbirds to volatiles. Condor, 91:922–932.
Cott HB. 1940. Adaptive Coloration in Animals. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Davies NB. 1999. Cuckoos and cowbirds versus hosts: co-evolutionary lag and equilibrium. Ostrich, 70:71–79.
Davies NB. 2000. Cuckoos, Cowbirds and Other Cheats. Poyser, London.
Davies NB, Brooke MdL. 1988. Cuckoos versus Reed Warblers: adaptations and counteradaptations. Anim Behav, 36:262–284.
Davies NB, Brooke MdL. 1989. An experimental study of co-evolution between the cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its hosts. I. Host egg discrimination. J Anim Ecol, 58:207–224.
Davies NB, Brooke MdL. 1998. Cuckoos versus hosts: experimental evidence for co-evolution. In: Rothstein SI, Robinson SK (eds) Parasitic Birds and Their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 59–79.
Dawkins R, Krebs JR. 1979. Arms races between and within species. Proc R Soc Lond B, 205:489–511.
Dufty AM Jr. 1983. Variation in the egg markings of the Brown-headed Cowbird. Condor, 85:109–111.
Friedmann H. 1964. The history of our knowledge of avian brood parasitism. Centaurus, 10:282–304.
Gärtner K. 1981. Das Wegnehmen von Wirtsvogeleiern durch den Kuckuck (Cuculus canorus). Ornithol Mitt, 33:15–131.
Gehringer F. 1979. Etude sur le pillage par le Coucou, Cuculus canorus, des œufs de la Rousserolle effarvatte. Nos Oiseaux, 35:1–16.
Gesner C. 1669. Vogelbuch. Wilhelm Serlins, Frankfurt-am-Main.
Gibbs HL, Sorenson MD, Marchetti K, Brooke MdL, Davies NB, Nakamura H. 2000. Genetic evidence for female host-specific races of the Common Cuckoo. Nature, 407:83–186.
Gill FB, Wright M. 2006. Birds of the World. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
Gurney JH. 1899. The economy of the cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Trans Norfolk Norwich Nat Hist Soc, 6:365–384.
Hagelin JC, Jones IL. 2007. Bird odors and other chemical substances: a defense mechanism or overlooked mode of intraspecific communication? Auk, 124:741–761.
Hamilton WJ, III, Orians GH. 1965. Evolution of brood parasitism in altricial birds. Condor, 37:361–382.
Hann HW. 1937. Life history of the oven-bird in southern Michigan. Wilson Bull, 49:145–237.
Higuchi H. 1998. Host use and egg color of Japanese cuckoos. In: Rothstein SI, Robinson SK (eds) Parasitic Birds and Their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 80–93.
Honza M, Po?gayová M, Procházka P, Tkadlec E. 2007. Consistency in egg rejection behaviour: responses to repeated brood parasitism in the Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla). Ethology, 113:344–351.
Honza M, Taborsky B, Taborsky M, Teuschl Y, Vogl W, Moksnes A, Røskaft E. 2002. Behaviour of female Common Cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, in the vicinity of host nests before and during laying: a radiotelemetry study. Anim Behav, 64:861–868.
Hoover JP. 2003. Multiple effects of brood parasitism reduce the reproductive success of Prothonotary Warblers, Protonaria citrea. Anim Behav, 65:923–935.
Hoover JP, Robinson SK. 2007. Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 104:4474–4483. .
Jenner E. 1788. Observations on the natural history of the cuckoo. Phil Trans R Soc Lond, 78:219–237.
Jourdain FCR. 1925. A study on parasitism in the cuckoos. Proc Zool Soc Lond, 1925:639–667.
Junker T. 2003. Ornithology and the genesis of the synthetic theory of evolution. Avian Sci, 3:65–73.
Kelly C. 1987. A model to explore the rate of spread of mimicry and rejection in hypothetical populations of cuckoos and their hosts. J Theor Biol, 125:282–299.
Kilner RM. 2006. The evolution of egg colour and patterning in birds. Biol Rev, 81:383–406.
Kim CH, Yamagishi S, Won PO. 1995. Egg-color dimorphism and breeding success of the Crow Tit (Paradoxornis webbianus). Auk, 112:831–839.
Kim DW. 2006. Egg discrimination ability of Paradoxornis webbianus and antiparasitic behavior against brood parasitism. MSc thesis, Kyunghee University, Seoul, Korea.
Lahti DC, Lahti AR. 2002. How precise is egg discrimination in weaverbirds? Anim Behav, 63:1135–1142.
Langmore NE, Stevens M, Maurer G, Kilner RM. 2009. Are dark cuckoo eggs cryptic in host nests? Anim Behav, 78:461–468.
Lee JW, Kim DW, Yoo JC. 2005. Egg rejection by both male and female Vinous-throated Parrotbill Paradoxornis webbianus. Integr Biosci, 9:211–213.
Lee Y. 2008. Egg discrimination by the vinous-throated parrotbill, a host of the common cuckoo that lays polychromatic eggs. MSc thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Leverkühn P. 1891. Fremde Eier im Nest: ein Beitrag zur Biologie der Vögel. Friedländer und Sohn, Berlin.
Liang W, Yang C, Antonov A, Fossøy F, Stokke BG, Moksnes A, Røskaft E, Shykoff JA, Møller AP, Takasu F. 2011. Sex roles in egg recognition and egg polymorphism in avian brood parasitism. Behav Ecol, 23:397–402.
Lindholm AK. 1997. Evolution of host defences against avian brood parasitism. PhD dissertation, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Lotem A, Nakamura H, Zahavi A. 1991. Rejection of cuckoo eggs in relation to host age: a possible evolutionary equilibrium. Behav Ecol, 3:128–132.
Lotem A, Nakamura H, Zahavi A. 1995. Constraints on egg discrimination and cuckoo-host co-evolution. Anim Behav, 49:1185–1209.
Lottinger AJ. 1775. Le coucou. Discours apologétique, ou mémoire sur le coucou d’Europe. JB Hiacinthe LeClerc, Nancy, France.
Lottinger AJ. 1795. Histoire du coucou d’Europe. FG Levrault, Strasbourg, France.
Lucas AHS. 1887. On the production of colour in birds’ eggs. Trans Proc R Soc Victoria, 24:52–60.
Lyon BE. 2003. Egg recognition and counting reduce costs of avian conspecific brood parasitism. Nature, 422:495–499.
McMaster DG, Neudorf, DLH, Sealy SG, Pitcher TE. 2004. A comparative analysis of laying times in passerine birds. J Field Ornithol, 75:113–122.
Marshall GAK. 1938. [Obituary of] Mr. C.F.M. Swynnerton, C.M.G. Nature, 142:198–199.
Mayfield H. 1960. The Kirtland’s Warbler. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.
Mayfield H. 1965. Chance distribution of cowbird eggs. Condor, 67:257–263.
Mayr E, Provine wb (eds). 1980. The Evolutionary Synthesis: Perspectives on the Unification of Biology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Martínez JG, Soler JJ, Soler M, Burke T. 1998. Spatial patterns of egg laying and multiple parasitism in a brood parasite: a non-territorial system in the Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius). Oecologia, 117:286–294.
Mason P, Rothstein SI. 1986. Coevolution and avian brood parasitism: cowbird eggs show evolutionary response to host discrimination. Evolution, 40:1207–1214.
McEwan AJ, Joy MK. 2011. Monitoring a New Zealand freshwater fish community using passive integrated transponder (PIT) technology; lessons learned and recommendations for future use. NZ Mar Freshwater Res, 45:121–133.
McLaren CM, Sealy SG. 2000. Are nest predation and brood parasitism correlated in Yellow Warblers? A test of the cowbird predation hypothesis. Auk, 117:1056–1060.
McLaren CM, Woolfenden BE, Gibbs HL, Sealy SG. 2003. Genetic and temporal patterns of multiple parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) on Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Can J Zool, 81:1–6.
Mermoz ME, Reboreda JC. 1999. Egg-laying behaviour by Shiny Cowbirds parasitizing Brown-and-yellow Marshbirds. Anim Behav, 58:873–882.
Moksnes A. 1992. Egg recognition in Chaffinches and Bramblings. Anim Behav, 44:993–995.
Moksnes A, Røskaft E, Braa AT. 1991. Rejection behavior by Common Cuckoo hosts towards artificial brood parasite eggs. Auk, 108:348–354.
Moksnes A, Røskaft E, Solli MM. 1994. Documenting puncture ejection of parasitic eggs by Chaffinches Fringilla coelebs and Blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla. Fauna norv. Series C, Cinclus, 17:115–118.
Moreno J, Osorno JL. 2003. Avian egg colour and sexual selection: does eggshell pigmentation reflect female condition and genetic quality? Ecol Lett, 6:803–806.
Moskát C, Bán M, Székley T, Komdeur J, Lucassen RWG, van Boheemen LA, Hauber ME. 2010. Discordancy or template-based recognition? Dissecting the cognitive basis of the rejection of foreign eggs in hosts of avian brood parasites. J Exp Biol, 213:1976–1983.
Moskát C, Honza, M. 2002. European Cuckoo Cuculus canorus parasitism and host’s rejection behaviour in a heavily parasitized Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus population. Ibis, 144:614–622.
Nakamura T, Cruz A. 2000. The ecology of egg-puncture behavior in the Shiny Cowbird in southwestern Puerto Rico. In: Smith JNM, Cook TL, Rothstein SI, Robinson SK, Sealy SG (eds) Ecology and Management of Cowbirds and Their Hosts. University of Texas Press, Austin, pp 178–186.
Nakamura H, Miyazawa Y. 1997. Movements, space use and social organization of radio-tracked Common Cuckoos during the breeding season in Japan. Jap J Ornithol, 46:23–54.
Newton A. 1869. Cuckows’ eggs. Nature, 1:74–76.
Nolan V Jr. 1978. The ecology and behavior of the Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor. Ornithol Monogr, No. 26.
Orians GH, Røskaft E, Beletsky LD. 1989. Do Brown-headed Cowbirds lay their eggs at random in the nests of Red-winged Blackbirds. Wilson Bull, 101:599–605.
Ortega CP, Ortega JC, Cruz A. 1994. Use of artificial Brown-headed Cowbird eggs as a potential management tool in deterring parasitism. J Wildl Manage, 58:488–492.
Pagel M, Møller AP, Pomiankowski A. 1998. Reduced parasitism by retaliatory cuckoos selects for hosts that rear cuckoo nestlings. Behav Ecol, 9:566–572.
Payne RB. 1977. The ecology of brood parasitism in birds. Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 8:1–28.
Palomino JJ, Martin-Vivaldi M, Soler M, Soler JJ. 1998. Females are responsible for ejection of cuckoo eggs in the Rufous Bush Robin. Anim Behav, 56:131–136.
Peer BD, Sealy SG. 2001. Mechanism of egg recognition in the Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus). Bird Behav, 14:71–73.
Peer BD, Sealy SG. 2004. Fate of grackle (Quiscalus spp.) defenses in the absence of brood parasitism: implications for long-term parasite-host coevolution. Auk, 121:1172–1186.
Peer BD, Rothstein SI, Delaney KS, Fleischer RC. 2007. Defence behaviour against brood parasitism is deeply rooted in mainland and island scrub-jays. Anim Behav, 73:55–63.
Pepperberg IM. 2001. Avian cognitive abilities. Bird Behav, 14: 51–70.
Picman J. 1989. Mechanism of puncture resistance of eggs of Brown-headed Cowbirds. Auk, 106:577–583.
Poulton EB. 1890. The colours of animals: their meaning and use, especially considered in the case of insects. Int Sci Ser, no. 68.
Poulsen H. 1953. A study of incubation responses and some other behavior patterns in birds. Vidensk Medd fra Dansk Naturh Foren, 115:1–131.
Po?gayová M, Procházka P, Honza M. 2009. Sex-specific defence behavior against brood parasitism in a host with female-only incubation. Behav Processes, 81:34–38.
Preston FW. 1948. The cowbird (M. ater) and the cuckoo (C. canorus). Ecology, 29:115–116.
Rasmussen JL, Sealy SG, Underwood TJ. 2009. Video recording reveals the method of ejection of Brown headed Cowbird eggs and no cost in American Robins and Gray Catbirds. Condor, 111:570–574.
Reboreda JC, Clayton NS, Kacelnik A. 1996. Species and sex differences in hippocampus size in parasitic and non-parasitic cowbirds. Neuroreport, 7:505–508.
Rennie J. 1831. The Architecture of Birds. Charles Knight, London.
Rensch B. 1924. Zur Entstehung der Mimikry der Kuckuckseier. J Ornithol, 72:461–472.
Rensch B. 1925. Verhalten von Singvögeln bei Aenderung des Geleges. Ornithol Monatschr, 33:169–173.
Rey E. 1892. Altes und Neues aus dem Haushalte des Kuckucks. Freese, Leipzig.
Rivers JW, Young S, Gonzalez EG, Horton B, Lock J, Fleischer RC. 2012. High levels of relatedness between Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) nestmates in a heavily parasitized host community. Auk, 129:623–631.
Roper TJ. 1999. Olfaction in birds. Adv Stud Behav, 28:247–332.
Rothstein SI. 1970. An experimental investigation of the defenses of the hosts of the parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). PhD dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Rothstein SI. 1974. Mechanisms of avian egg recognition: possible learned and innate factors. Auk, 91:796–807.
Rothstein SI. 1975a. An experimental and teleonomic investigation of avian brood parasitism. Condor, 77:250–271.
Rothstein SI. 1975b. Mechanisms of avian egg-recognition: do birds know their own eggs? Anim Behav, 23:268–278.
Rothstein SI. 1975c. Evolutionary rates and host defenses against avian brood parasitism. Am Nat, 109:161–176.
Rothstein SI. 1977. Cowbird parasitism and egg recognition of the Northern Oriole. Wilson Bull, 89:21–32.
Rothstein SI. 1978. Mechanisms of avian egg-recognition: additional evidence for learned components. Anim Behav, 26:671–677.
Rothstein SI. 1982a. Successes and failures in avian egg and nestling recognition with comments on the utility of optimality reasoning. Am Zool, 22:547–560.
Rothstein SI. 1982b. Mechanisms of avian egg recognition: which parameters elicit responses by ejecter species? Behav Ecol Soiciobiol, 11:229–239.
Rothstein SI. 1990. A model system for coevolution: avian brood parasitism. Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 21:481–508.
Rothstein SI, Robinson SK. 1998. The evolution and ecology of avian brood parasitism. In: Rothstein SI, Robinson SK (eds) Parasitic Birds and Their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 3–56.
Schmaltz G, Somers CM, Sharma P, Quinn JS. 2006. Non-destructive sampling of maternal DNA from the external shell of bird eggs. Conserv Genet, 7:543–549.
Schulze-Hagen K, Stokke BG, Birkhead TR. 2009. Reproductive biology of the European Cuckoo Cuculus canorus: early insights, persistent errors and the acquisition of knowledge. J Ornithol, 150:1–16.
Sealy SG. 1992. Removal of Yellow Warbler eggs in association with cowbird parasitism. Condor, 94:40–54.
Sealy SG. 1996. Evolution of host defenses against brood parasitism: implications for puncture-ejection by a small passerine. Auk, 113:346–355.
Sealy SG. 2009. Cuckoos and their fosterers: uncovering details of Edward Blyth’s field experiments. Arch Nat Hist, 36:129–135.
Sealy SG, Bazin RC. 1995. Low frequency of observed cowbird parasitism on Eastern Kingbirds: host rejection, effective nest defense, or parasite avoidance? Behav Ecol, 6:140–145.
Sealy SG, Guigueno MF. 2011. Cuckoo chicks evicting their nest mates: coincidental observations by Edward Jenner in England and Antoine Joseph Lottinger in France. Arch Nat Hist, 38:220–228.
Sealy SG, Lorenzana JC. 1998. Yellow Warblers (Dendroica petechia) do not recognize their own eggs. Bird Behav, 12:57–66.
Sealy SG, Neudorf DL. 1995. Male Northern Orioles eject cowbird eggs: Implications for the evolution of rejection behavior. Condor, 369–375.
Sealy SG, McMaster DG, Peer BD. 2002. Tactics of obligate brood parasites to secure suitable incubators. In: Deeming DC (ed) Avian Incubation: Behaviour, Environment, and Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 254–269.
Sealy SG, Neudorf DL, Hill DP. 1995. Rapid laying by Brown-headed Cowbirds and other parasitic birds. Ibis, 137:76–84.
Sherry DF, Vaccarino AL, Buckenham K, Herz RS. 1989. The hippocampal complex of food-storing birds. Brain Behav Evol, 34:308–317.
Sherry DF, Forbes ML, Khurgel M, Ivy GO. 1993. Females have a larger hippocampus than males in the brood-parasitic Brown-headed Cowbird. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 90:7839–7843.
Smith JNM, Taitt MJ, Zanette L, Myers-Smith IH. 2003. How do Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) cause nest failure in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia)? A removal experiment. Auk, 120:772–783.
Soler JJ, Møller AP, Soler M. 1998. Mafia behavior and the evolution of facultative virulence. J Theor Biol, 191:267–277.
Soler JJ, Sorci G, Soler M, Møller AP. 1999. Change in host rejection behavior mediated by the predatory behavior of its brood parasite. Behav Ecol, 10:275–180.
Soler M, Soler JJ, Martínez JG. 1998. Duration of sympatry and coevolution between the Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamater glandarius) and its primary host, the Magpie (Pica pica). In: Rothstein SI, Robinson SK (eds) Parasitic Birds and Their Hosts: Studies in Coevolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 113–142.
Soler M, Fernández-Morante, Espinosa F, Martín-Vivaldi M. 2012. Pecking but accepting the parasitic eggs may not reflect ejection failure: the role of motivation. Ethology, 118:662–672.
Soler M, Martín-Vivaldi M, Pérez-Contreras T. 2002. Identification of the sex that is responsible for recognition and the method of ejection of parasite eggs in some potential Common Cuckoo hosts. Ethology, 108:1093–1101.
Soler M, Soler JJ, Martínez JG. 1997. Great Spotted Cuckoos improve their reproductive success by damaging magpie host eggs. Anim Behav, 54:1227–1233.
Soler M, Soler JJ, Martínez JG, Møller AP. 1995. Magpie host manipulation by Great Spotted Cuckoos: evidence for an avian mafia? Evolution, 49:770–775.
Strausberger BM, Rothstein SI. 2009. Parasitic cowbirds may defeat defense by causing rejecters to misimprint of cowbird eggs. Behav Ecol, 20:691–699.
Stuart Baker EC. 1913. The evolution of adaptation in parasitic cuckoos’ eggs. Ibis, Series 10, 1:384–398.
Stuart Baker EC. 1942. Cuckoo Problems. Witherby, London.
Swynnerton CFM. 1916. On the coloration of the mouths and eggs of birds. — II. On the coloration of eggs. Ibis, Series 10, 4:529–606.
Swynnerton CFM. 1918. Rejections by birds of eggs unlike their own: with remarks on some of the cuckoo problems. Ibis, Series 10, 6:127–154.
Underwood TJ, Sealy SG. 2002. Adaptive significance of egg coloration. In: Deeming DC (ed) Avian Incubation: Behaviour, Environment, and Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 280–298.
Underwood TJ, Sealy SG. 2006. Parameters of Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater egg recognition and ejection in Warbling Vireos Vireo gilvus. J Avian Biol, 37:457–466.
Underwood TJ, Sealy SG. 2008. UV reflectance of eggs of Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and acceptor and rejecter hosts. J Ornithol, 149:313–321.
Underwood TJ, Sealy SG. 2011. Behavior of Warbling Vireos ejecting real and artificial cowbird eggs. Wilson J Ornithol, 123:395–400.
Underwood TJ, Sealy SG, McLaren CM. 2004. Experiments on egg discrimination in two North American corvids: further evidence for retention of egg rejection. Can J Zool, 82:1399–1407.
Victoria JK. 1972: Clutch characteristics and egg discriminative ability of the African Village Weaverbird Ploceus cucullatus. Ibis, 114:367–376.
Weatherhead PJ. 1989. Sex ratios, host-specific reproductive success, and impact of Brown-headed Cowbird. Auk, 106:358–366.
Welty JC. 1962. The life of birds. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Whittaker DJD, Reichard DG, Dapper AL, Ketterson ED. 2009. Behavioral responses of nesting female Dark-eyed Juncos Junco hyemalis to hetero- and conspecific passerine preen oils. J Avian Biol, 40:579–583.
Wilson A. 1810. American Ornithology. Vol. 2. Bradford and Inskeep, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Wuketits FM. 2006. Bernhard Rensch, German evolutionist. Biol Theory, 1:410–413.
Wyllie I. 1981. The Cuckoo. Universe, New York.
Yang C, Cai Y, Liang W. 2012. Species identification of sympatric cuckoo nestlings in a multiple-cuckoo system, China. Chinese Birds, 3:108–112.
Zahavi A. 1979. Parasitism and nest predation in parasitic cuckoos. Am Nat, 113:157–159.
Similar articles
1.Jorg HOFFMANN, Udo WITTCHEN, Ulrich STACHOW, Gert BERGER.Identification of habitat requirements of farmland birds based on a hierarchical structured monitoring scheme[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(4): 265-280
2.Fengting ZHAO, Lizhi ZHOU, Wenbin XU.Habitat utilization and resource partitioning of wintering Hooded Cranes and three goose species at Shengjin Lake[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(4): 281-290
3.Xiaolian SHU, Zhou LU, Gang YANG, Yuanjun MENG, Zhaotian LI, Fang ZHOU.Survey of the use by birds of various karst wetlands in southwestern Guangxi, southern China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(4): 291-305
4.Peter J. FULLAGAR, Michael J. DAWKINS, Clive D. T. MINTON.Biometrics and wing molt in White-winged Black Tern (Chlidonias leucopterus) in north-west Australia[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(4): 306-313
5.Andrew CANTRELL, Lei LV, Yong WANG, Zhengwang ZHANG, Jianqiang LI.Ectoparasites and other invertebrates in the nests of the Hair-crested Drongo (Dicrurus hottentottus)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(4): 314-318
6.Cheng WEN, Dong HAN.Raptor migration monitoring in the spring of 2009 at Baiwangshan, Beijing[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(4): 319-327
7.Chao LIU, Zhiping HUO, Xiaoping YU.Population and conservation status of the Himalayan Griffon (Gyps himalayensis) at the Drigung Thel Monastery, Tibet, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(4): 328-331
8.James HARRIS, Claire MIRANDE.A global overview of cranes: status, threats and conservation priorities[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(3): 189-209
9.Johann H. VAN NIEKERK.Vocal structure, behavior and partitioning of all 23 Pternistis spp. into homologous sound (and monophyletic) groups[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(3): 210-231
10.Siegfried KLAUS, Winfried VOIGT, Yun FANG, Peter SELSAM, Yue-Hua SUN.Patch occupancy by the Chinese Grouse (Tetrastes sewerzowi) in a fragmented landscape[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(3): 232-239
11.Ricardo CASAUX.Does prey availability affect the foraging effort and breeding success in the Antarctic Shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis)?[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(3): 240-247
12.Youhua CHEN.Conservation priority for endemic birds of mainland China based on a phylogenetic framework[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(3): 248-253
13.Jianyun GAO, Zhaolu WU, Dongdong SU, Pingsheng ZHONG, Yisheng PENG, Fasheng ZOU.Observations on breeding behavior of the White-eared Night Heron (Gorsachius magnificus) in northern Guangdong, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(3): 254-259
14.Yiqiang FU, Simon D. DOWELL, Zhengwang ZHANG.Emei Shan Liocichla: population, behavior and conservation[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(3): 260-264
15. Per ALSTROM, Urban OLSSON, Fumin LEI.A review of the recent advances in the systematics of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(2): 99-131
16. Jon FJELDSA.The global diversification of songbirds (Oscines) and the build-up of the Sino-Himalayan diversity hotspot[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(2): 132-143
17. Wenjuan WANG, Chuanyin DAI, Bailey D. MCKAY, Na ZHAO, Shou-Hsien LI, Fumin LEI.Microsatellites underestimate genetic divergence in the Green-backed Tit (Parus monticolus)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(2): 144-154
18. Urban OLSSON, Per ALSTROM.Molecular evidence suggests that the enigmatic Sulawesi endemic Geomalia heinrichi belongs in the genus Zoothera (Turdidae, Aves)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(2): 155-160
19. Chen YANG, Yinxu HOU, Lizhi ZHOU.Behaviors of the Oriental White Stork (Ciconia boyciana) in a semi-natural enclosure[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(2): 161-169
20. Zhaotian LI, Zhou LU, Xiaolian SHU, Guangwei JIANG, Liang XU, Fang ZHOU.Nestedness of bird assemblages in the karst forest fragments of southwestern Guangxi, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(2): 170-183
21. Tiziano LONDEI.About the geographic distribution of the Xinjiang Ground Jay (Podoces biddulphi)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(2): 184-186
22. Wenhong DENG.Brood parasitism on the Yellow-rumped Flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia) by the Oriental Cuckoo (Cuculus optatus) in an artificial nestbox in Beijing[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(2): 187-188
23..Back cover figure[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(2): 0-
24.Eivin ROSKAFT, Wei LIANG, Bard G. STOKKE .Avian brood parasitism — a growing research area in behavioral ecology (part II)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 1-2
25.Arne MOKSNES, Frode FOSSOY, Eivin ROSKAFT, Bard G. STOKKE.Reviewing 30 years of studies on the Common Cuckoo: accumulated knowledge and future perspectives[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 3-14
26.Brian D. PEER, James W. RIVERS, Stephen I. ROTHSTEIN.Cowbirds, conservation, and coevolution: potential misconceptions and directions for future research[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 15-30
27.Scott ROBINSON, Wendy SCHELSKY, Jeffrey HOOVER.Does landscape structure contribute to the long-term maintenance of generalized parasitism in cowbirds?[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 31-38
28.Rose THOROGOOD, Nicholas B. DAVIES.Hawk mimicry and the evolution of polymorphic cuckoos[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 39-50
29.Canchao YANG, Yan CAI, Wei LIANG.Eggs mimicry of Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) utilizing Ashy-throated Parrotbill (Paradoxornis alphonsianus) host[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 51-56
30.Juan C. REBOREDA, Vanina D. FIORINI, María C. De MARSICO.Antiparasitic defenses in hosts of South American cowbirds[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 57-70
31.Bruce E. LYON, John M. EADIE.Patterns of host use by a precocial obligate brood parasite, the Black-headed Duck: ecological and evolutionary considerations[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 71-85
32.Naomi E. LANGMORE.Australian cuckoos and their adaptations for brood parasitism[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 86-92
33.Brian D. PEER, James W. RIVERS, Stephen I. ROTHSTEIN.The Brown-headed Cowbird: North America’s avian brood parasite[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 93-98
34..The 3rd International Symposium on Avian Brood Parasitism[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 0-
35..Back cover figure[J]. Chinese Birds, 2013,4(1): 0-
36.Eivin ROSKAFT, Wei LIANG, Bard G. STOKKE.Avian brood parasitism — a growing research area in behavioral ecology[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 243-244
37.Anton ANTONOV, Bard G. STOKKE, Frode FOSSOY, Wei LIANG, Arne MOKSNES, Eivin ROSKAFT, Canchao YANG, Anders P. MOLLER.Why do brood parasitic birds lay strong-shelled eggs?[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 245-258
38.Anders P. MOLLER, Juan J. SOLER.A coevolutionary framework based on temporal and spatial ecology of host-parasite interactions: A missing link in studies of brood parasitism[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 259-273
39.Zachary AIDALA, Nicola CHONG, Michael G. ANDERSON, Mark E. HAUBER.Predicted visual sensitivity for short-wavelength light in the brood parasitic cuckoos of New Zealand[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 295-301
40. Jesús M. AVILéS, Deseada PAREJO.Intra-clutch variation in egg appearance assessed by human vision does not relate to rejection of parasite eggs in Iberian Azure-winged Magpies[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 302-311
41. Jin-Won LEE, Piotr G. JABLONSKI.Egg color polymorphism and morph-ratio variation in Korean populations of the Vinous-throated Parrotbill[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 312-319
42. Csaba MOSKAT, Fugo TAKASU, A. Roman MUNOZ, Hiroshi NAKAMURA, Miklós BAN, Zoltán BARTA.Cuckoo parasitism on two closely-related Acrocephalus warblers in distant areas: a case of parallel coevolution?[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 320-329
43. Peter SAMAS, Lenka POLACIKOVA, Mark E. HAUBER, Phillip CASSEY, Tomas GRIM.Egg rejection behavior and clutch characteristics of the European Greenfinch introduced to New Zealand[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 330-338
44. Eivin ROSKAFT, Bard G. STOKKE, Frode FOSSOY, Arne MOKSNES.In memorial ― Anton Antonov (1977–2012)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 339-340
45..Acknowledgments to Reviewers[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 0-0
46..Types of egg morphs of Common Cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their two closely-related Acrocephalus hosts from Hungary (host: Great Reed Warbler, A. arundinaceus) and Japan (host: Oriental Reed Warbler, A. orientalis)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(4): 0-0
47. Liying SU, Hongfei ZOU.Status, threats and conservation needs for the continental population of the Red-crowned Crane[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 147-164
48. Hongxing JIANG, Fawen QIAN, Chunyue LIU, Xiaoming LI, Yunqiu HOU, Guogang ZHANG, Ming DAI, Dongping LIU.Impact of marsh changes on breeding cranes in Sanjiang Plain, northeastern China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 165-179
49. Fengshan LI, Jiandong WU, James HARRIS, James BURNHAM.Number and distribution of cranes wintering at Poyang Lake, China during 2011–2012[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 180-190
50. Mary A. BISHOP, Drolma TSAMCHU, Fengshan LI.Number and distribution of Black-necked Cranes wintering in Zhigatse Prefecture, Tibet[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 191-198
51. Tong ZHANG, Ming MA, Peng DING, Feng XU, Paul J. BUZZARD.Status and behavior of the Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in the Altun Mountain Reserve, Xinjiang[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 199-205
52. Jinming LUO, Yongjie WANG, Fan YANG, Zhijun LIU.Effects of human disturbance on the Hooded Crane (Grus monacha) at stopover sites in northeastern China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 206-216
53. Fawen QIAN, Hongxing JIANG, Guohai YU, Youzhong YU, Jun YANG, Siliang PANG, Renzu PIAO.Survey of breeding populations of the Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) in the Songnen Plain, northeastern China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 217-224
54. Yuxiang LI, Changzhan SONG, Yucheng YANG, Xiaojing LI, Fengli LI, Jie HUANG, Xiuli HUANG.Monitoring population dynamics of the migratory Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis) at Shuangtaihekou National Nature Reserve, northeastern China, from 1991 to 2012[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 225-229
55. Oleg A. GOROSHKO.Red-crowned Cranes on the Russian-Chinese Argun River and neighboring parts of the Daurian steppes[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 230-237
56. Hong GUO, Ming MA.The Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus): record of a new bird in China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 238-239
57. Jingjing LI, Hongfeng CAO, Kun JIN, Lianxian HAN, Huijian HU.A new record of Picidae in China: the Brown-fronted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos auriceps)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 240-241
58..Red-crowned Crane (Grus japonensis)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(3): 0-
59..Tibetan Eared-pheasant (Crossoptilon harmani)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 0-
60. Lili ZHANG, Lizhi ZHOU, Yanli DAI.Genetic structure of wintering Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) based on mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequences[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 71-81
61. Weiwei ZHANG, Jianzhang MA.Use of display platforms of Common Coots (Fulica atra) compared with the use of nests during breeding seasons[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 82-90
62. Iftikhar HUSSAIN, Asmat-un-NISA , Sangum KHALIL.Population biology of the Grey Francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus) in an agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 91-102
63. Langyu GU, Yang LIU, Ning WANG, Zhengwang ZHANG.A panel of polymorphic microsatellites in the Blue Eared Pheasant (Crossoptilon auritum) developed by cross-species amplification[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 103-107
64. Canchao YANG, Yan CAI, Wei LIANG.Species identification of sympatric cuckoo nestlings in a multiple-cuckoo system, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 108-112
65. Xin LU.Summer-autumn habitat use by Galliformes in a primary forest, southeastern Tibet[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 113-117
66. Shuihua CHEN, Qin HUANG, Zhongyong FAN, Cangsong CHEN, Yiwei LU.The update of Zhejiang bird checklist[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 118-136
67. Abebe Kokiso.Avian diversity in hedgerows, preference to hedgerow types and their conservation at Angacha (Kembatta), central Ethiopia[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 137-142
68. Aiwu JIANG, Zhiying CHENG, Xiantang LIANG.Discovery of Hume’s Pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae) in Guizhou Province, southwestern China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(2): 143-146
69. Xiaofeng LIU, Nikita CHERNETSOV.Avian orientation: multi-cue integration and calibration of compass systems[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(1): 1-8
70. Canchao YANG, Wei LIANG, Anton ANTONOV, Yan CAI, B?rd G. STOKKE, Frode FOSS?Y, Arne MOKSNES, Eivin R?SKAFT.Diversity of parasitic cuckoos and their hosts in China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(1): 9-32
71. Nan WANG, Guangmei ZHENG, Philip J.K. McGowan.Pheasants in sacred and other forests in western Sichuan: their cultural conservation[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(1): 33-46
72. Johann H. VAN NIEKERK.Observations on movements of Double-banded Sandgrouse (Pterocles bicinctus) in Borakalalo National Park, North West province, South Africa[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(1): 47-53
73. Borhan MANSOURI, Ebrahim HOSHYARI.Nickel concentration in two bird species from Hara Biosphere Reserve of southern Iran[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(1): 54-59
74. Yongzhi ZHU, Nan Lü, Peter PECHACEK, Jinlin LI, Yue-Hua SUN.Foraging behavior of the Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker subspecies Picoides tridactylus funebris in southern Gansu, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(1): 60-66
75. Zhi LIN, Fenqi HE.Three Australian leg-flagged Roseate Terns found at Caiyu Archipelago of SE Fujian, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(1): 67-70
76..Asian Emerald Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx maculatus)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2012,3(1): 0-
77.Fenqi HE 1, Xiaojun YANG 2, Xuejian DENG 3, Kaiming ZHU 4, Li LI 4, Jiansheng LIN 5, Hangdong JIANG 6, Lin ZHI 6.The White-eared Night Heron (Gorsachius magnificus): from behind the bamboo curtain to the front stage[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(4): 163-166
78.Fengshan LI 1, Mary Anne Bishop 1, Tsamchu Drolma 2.Power line strikes by Black-necked Cranes and Bar-headed Geese in Tibet Autonomous Region[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(4): 167-173
79.Wondimagegnehu TEKALIGN 1, Afework BEKELE 2.Status of and threats to the Black-winged Lovebird (Agapornis taranta) in Entoto Natural Park and Bole Sub-City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(4): 174-182
80.V. GOKULA.An ethogram of Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(4): 183-192
81.Ramachandran SANTHANAKRISHNAN, Abdul Hameed MOHAMED SAMSOOR ALI, Uthirapathi ANBARASAN.Food habits and prey spectrum of Spotted Owlet (Athene brama) in Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, southern India[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(4): 193-199
82.Yiqun WU 1, Naifa LIU 2.Blue-eared Pheasant: a forest bird endemic to China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(4): 200-205
83.Yupin QIN 1, Fenqi HE 2.Latest evidence of the existence of the northern flock of the Chinese Crested Tern (Sterna bernsteini)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(4): 206-207
84. Johann H. VAN Niekerk.Observations of Red-billed Spurfowl (Pternistis adspersus) in the arid Molopo Nature Reserve, North West Province, South Africa[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(3): 117-124
85.Jianqiang LI, Yanyun ZHANG, Zhengwang ZHANG.High frequency components in avian vocalizations[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(3): 125-131
86.Canwei XIA, Rong HUANG, Changchun WEI, Pinwen NIE, Yanyun ZHANG.Individual identification on the basis of the songs of the Asian Stubtail (Urosphena squameiceps)  [J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(3): 132-139
87. Mariya V. SIVAY, Nikita Y. SILKO, Kirill A. SHARSHOV, Aleksander V. PROKUDIN, Laixing LI, Min YANG, Sheng CAO, Aleksander M. SHESTOPALOV .The role of wild goose (Anser) populations of Russia and the Tibet Plateau in the spread of the avian influenza virus[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(3): 140-146
88.Zhongqiu LI.Suitable distance to observe Red-crowned Cranes: a note on the observer effect[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(3): 147-151
89.Lin CHEN, Fenqi HE.Are they hybrids of Sterna bergii × Sterna bernsteini?[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(3): 152-156
90.Xiaochun MA, Junfeng GUO, Xiaoping YU.Himalayan Monal (Lophophorus impejanus): distribution, habitat and population status in Tibet, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(3): 157-162
91. Lu DONG, Wenhui NIU, Zhenting ZHOU, Yu-Cheng HSU, Yue SUN, Huw LLOYD, Yanyun ZHANG.Assessing the genetic integrity of captive and wild populations for reintroduction programs: the case of Cabot’s Tragopan in China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(2): 65-71
92.Fangjun LIN, Pingping JIANG, Ping DING.Genetic evidence for male-biased dispersal in Elliot’s Pheasant (Syrmaticus ellioti) in China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(2): 72-78
93. Lubna ALI, Noor-un-nisa , Syed Shahid SHAUKAT, Rafia Rehana GHAZI.Sex and age classes of prey items (rats/mice) in the diet of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in Sindh, Pakistan[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(2): 79-86
94.Kazuto KAWAKAMI, Masaki FUJITA, Motohiro HASEGAWA, Hiroshi MAKIHARA.Dietary characteristics of the Malayan Night Heron (Gorsachius melanolophus) in the Yaeyama Islands, southern Japan[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(2): 87-93
95.Yu JING, Nan Lü, Yun FANG, Yue-Hua SUN.Home range, population density, and habitat utilization of the Sichuan Jay (Perisoreus internigrans)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(2): 94-100
96.V.Gokula.Breeding biology of the Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis) in Karaivetti Bird Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(2): 101-108
97.Ji?í Mlíkovsky.Correct name for the Asian Russet Sparrow[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(2): 109-110
98.Wei LIANG, Zhengwang ZHANG.Hainan Peacock Pheasant (Polyplectron katsumatae): an endangered and rare tropical forest bird[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(2): 111-116
99.Lei CAO, Mark BARTER, Meijuan ZHAO, Haoxian MENG, Yong ZHANG.A systematic scheme for monitoring waterbird populations at Shengjin Lake, China: methodology and preliminary results[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(1): 1-17
100. Shuo WANG, Ying HU, Lu WANG.New ratite eggshell material from the Miocene of Inner Mongolia, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(1): 18-26
101.Xuan ZHANG, Ning HUA, Qiang MA, Wenjie XUE, Xuesong FENG, Wei WU, Chendong TANG, Zhijun MA.Diet of Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) during spring stopover at Chongming Dongtan, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(1): 27-32
102.Yun HUANG, Lizhi ZHOU .Screening and application of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis of Oriental White Stork (Ciconia boyciana)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(1): 33-38
103. Zhongyong FAN, Cangsong CHEN, Shuihua CHEN, Simba CHAN, Yiwei LU.Breeding seabirds along the Zhejiang coast: diversity, distribution and conservation[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(1): 39-45
104. Xiaojing LI, Yang SHI, Jiliang XU, Weidong BAO.Wintering ecology of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Beijing[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(1): 46-52
105. Jiliang XU, Zhengwang ZHANG .Home range and habitat composition of male Reeves's Pheasants in an agricultural-forest plantation landscape in central China: a preliminary report[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(1): 53-58
106. Ming MA.Status of the Xinjiang Ground Jay: population, breeding ecology and conservation[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(1): 59-62
107. Haitao WANG, Yunlei JIANG, Wei GAO.Jankowski's Bunting (Emberiza jankowskii): current status and conservation[J]. Chinese Birds, 2011,2(1): 63-63
108.Aiwu JIANG 1,*, Yuxin NING 2.A new distribution site of the Asian Open-billed Stork (Anastomus oscitans) in southwestern China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(4): 259-260
109. Fasheng ZOU 1,2,*, Guizhu CHEN 2, Qiongfang YANG 1.Impacts of bird abundance, activity height and light intensity on the number of birds captured by mist netting[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(4): 221-229
110. Junhua HU 1,2,3, Zhigang JIANG 2, Daode YANG 4, Huijian HU 3,*.Nest-site selection by Purple Swamphen in Haifeng, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(4): 230-235
111. Wei ZHOU 1,*, Ning LI 1, Zhongjian DENG 1, Qing ZHANG 1, Minghui LI 1, Xuerong WANG 2.Modeling foraging habitats of Hume's Pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae) in Dazhong Mountain, Yunnan, southwestern China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(4): 236-243
112. Farzana PERVEEN*, Hafeez Ullah KHAN.Pressure from hunting on crane species in southern districts of northern Pakistan[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(4): 244-250
113. Haitao Wang 1, Yunlei Jiang 1,2, Wei Gao 1,*.Jankowski’s Bunting (Emberiza jankowskii): current status and conservation[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(4): 251-258
114.Xin LEI 1,2, Zuohua YIN 1, Zhenmin LIAN 2, Cungen CHEN 3, Chuanyin DAI 1, Anton KRISTIN 4, Fumin LEI.Phylogenetic relationships of some Sylviidae species based on complete mtDNA cyt b and partial COI sequence data[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(3): 175-187
115.Kuo-Lang CHANG 1, Liang CHEN 2, Jinyu LEI 3,*.Two new bird records for China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(3): 211-214
116.Yue-Hua SUN *, Yun FANG.Chinese Grouse (Bonasa sewerzowi): its natural history, behavior and conservation[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(3): 215-220
117.Xin LU*, Dianhua KE, Xiaoyan MA, Guohong GONG, Tonglei YU.Nesting records of 20 bird species in Lhasa region, Tibet[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(3): 167-174
118.Shuping ZHANG 1,*, Guangmei ZHENG 2.Effect of urbanization on the abundance and distribution of Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) in Beijing[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(3): 188-197
119.Wei LIANG 1, J. Y. P. WONG 2, L. C. WONG 2*, C. L. FUNG 2, Zhumei LI 3.Ardeid nesting colonies in central Guizhou, southwestern China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(3): 198-203
120.Guogang ZHANG 1, Wei LIANG 2,*, Dongping LIU 1, Fawen QIAN 1, Yunqiu HOU 1, Wenba SU 3, Kilburn MIKE.Species abundance and conservation of coastal wintering waterbirds in Hainan Island, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(3): 204-210
121.Dongsheng LI 1,2, Corwin SULLIVAN 1, Zhonghe ZHOU 1, Fucheng ZHANG 1,*.Basal birds from China: a brief review[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(2): 83-96
122.Anders Pape MOLLER 1,2,*, Johannes ERRITZOE 3, Jan Tottrup NIELSEN 4.Causes of interspecific variation in susceptibility to cat preda­tion on birds [J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(2): 97-111
123.Chuanyin DAI 1,2, Kai CHEN 1,3, Ruiying ZHANG 1,2, Xiaojun YANG 4, Zuohua YIN 1, Hengjiu TIAN 5, Zhi.Molecular phylogenetic analysis among species of Paridae, Remizidae and Aegithalos based on mtDNA sequences of COI and cyt b [J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(2): 112-123
124.Wenzhen FANG*, Xiaolin CHEN, Qingxian LIN, Xiaoping ZHOU.Effect of colonial breeding of Chinese Egret (Egretta eulophotes) on the heavy metal accumulation in heronry soil[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(2): 124-131
125.Ning LI 1, Wei ZHOU 1,*, Wei LI 1, Qing ZHANG 1, Xuerong WANG 2.Comparison of roosting habitat characteristics of two sympatric pheasants during springtime at Dazhong
Mountain, southwestern China
[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(2): 132-140
126.Juan C. ALONSO *, Carlos PALACíN.The world status and population trends of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda): 2010 update[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(2): 141-147
127.Peiqi LIU 1,*, Feng LI 2, Huidong SONG 2, Qiang WANG 2, Yuwen SONG 3, Yusen LIU 3, Zhengji PIAO 4.A survey to the distribution of the Scaly-sided Merganser (Mergus squamatus) in Changbai Mountain range (China side) [J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(2): 148-155
128.Changqing DING.Crested Ibis[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(2): 156-162
129.Hangdong JIANG 1, Lin CHEN 2, Fenqi HE 3,*.Preliminary assessment on the current knowledge of the Chinese Crested Tern (Sterna bernsteini)[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(2): 163-166
130.J. H. VAN NIEKERK.Social organization of a flock of Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida meleagris) at the Krugersdorp Game Reserve, South Africa[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 22-29
131.Michele PANUCCIO 1,2, Nicolantonio AGOSTINI 1,2,*.Comparison of the water-crossing behavior of Western Marsh Harriers (Circus aeruginosus) and European Honey Buzzards (Pernis apivorus) during autumn migration[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 30-35
132.Hui WU, Haitao WANG, Yunlei JIANG, Fumin LEI, Wei GAO.Offspring sex ratio in Eurasian Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) with reversed sexual size dimorphism[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 36-44
133.Peng LI, Ping DING, Kenneth J. FEELEY, Jingcheng ZHANG, Pingping JIANG.Patterns of species diversity and functional diversity of breeding birds in Hangzhou across an urbanization gradient[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 1-8
134.Baohua WU, Tao LI, Xiaoping YU.Winter diet and digestive tract of the Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) in the Qinling Mountains, China[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 45-50
135.Manman CAO, Naifa LIU, Xiaoli WANG, Mengmeng GUAN.Genetic diversity and genetic structure of the Daurian Partridge (Perdix dauuricae) in China, assessed by microsatellite variation[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 51-64
136.Ning WANG, Jianqiang LI, Yingying LIU, Zhengwang ZHANG .Improvement on molecular sex identification primers for Passeriform bird species[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 65-69
137. Johannes KAMP, Maxim A. KOSHKIN, Robert D. SHELDON.Historic breeding of Sociable Lapwing (Vanellus gregarius) in Xinjiang[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 70-73
138. Zuhao HUANG, Xinjun LIAO.Cross-species amplification and characterization of microsatellite DNA loci from Gallus gallus in Bambusicola thoracica[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 74-76
139.Sellamuthu SOMASUNDARAM, Lalitha VIJAYAN.Foraging ecology of the globally threatened Nilgiri Wood Pigeon (Columba elphinstonii) in the Western Ghats, India[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 9-21
140.Yanyun ZHANG .Cabot’s Tragopan[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 77-79
141.Fenqi HE, Yongqi REN, Xiufang BAI.Preview of the No. 1148 Ramsar Site on the Ordos upland of western Inner Mongolia[J]. Chinese Birds, 2010,1(1): 80-81

Copyright by Chinese Birds